[A semi-annotated list of references to George Crumb in general music books can be found at ibiblio.]

ALCAREZ, J.A. George Crumb - entrevista y comentarios. Mexico City, 1977.

BAUR, John. Music Theory through Literature. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. {Ancient Voices of Children}
[Buy this book at]

BERRY, Ian, MENSING, Margo, and CRONE-ODEKON, Mary.  A Very Liquid Heaven.  Francis Young Tang Teaching Museum, 2005.  ISBN 097251886X.
[Buy this book at The Tang Museum]

BORROFF, Edith. Three American Composers. University Press of America, 1986. ISBN 0819153710. [annotations]
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BRUNS, Steven and BEN-AMOTS, Ofer.  George Crumb: The Alchemy of Sound. The Colorado College Music Press, 2005. [CC Music Press]

Cohen, David.  George Crumb: A Bio-Bibliography. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002. ISBN 0313318875. [Buy this book at]

COPE, David H. New Directions in Music. 6th edition. Waveland Press, 1998. ISBN 088133992X.
[Buy this book at]

GAGNE, Cole & CARAS, Tracy. Soundpieces: Interviews with American Composers. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1982. ISBN 0810827107.
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GANN, Kyle. American Music in the Twentieth Century. Schirmer Books, 1997. ISBN 002864655X.
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GILLESPIE, Don C. (ed.) George Crumb: Profile of a Composer. New York: C.F. Peters, 1986. ISBN 0938856022. [annotations]
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GRIFFITHS, Paul. Modern Music and After: Directions since 1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. ISBN 0198165110. {Only a passing mention to Night of the Four Moons on page 162.}
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KRAMER, Lawrence (ed.) Walt Whitman and Musical Modernism. Garland Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0815331541. {Includes a good treatment of Apparition in Chapter 7.}
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LEWIS, Thomas P. (ed.) Something About the Music 2: Guide to Contemporary Repertory. White Plains, NY: Pro/Am Music Resources, 1990. ISBN 0912483660. pp. 144-159.
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MACHLIS, Joseph. Introduction to Contemporary Music. 2nd edition. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979. ISBN 0393090264. pp. 519-524, 570.
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MORGAN, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music: A History of Musical Style in Modern Europe and America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1991. ISBN 039395272X. pp. 391, 413, 420-421, 446.
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NICHOLS, Janet. American Music Makers: An Introduction to American Composers. Walker & Co., 1990. ISBN 0802769578.
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SCHWARTZ, Elliott & GODFREY, Daniel. Music since 1945: Issues, Materials, and Literature. New York: Schirmer, 1993. ISBN 0028730402. pp. 141, 142, 170-172, 200, 233-235, 251-252, 256-257, 275-276, 297, 407-409.
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SMITH, Geoff & SMITH, Nicola Walker. New Voices: American Composers talk about their Music. Portland, OR: Amadeus Press, 1995. ISBN 0931340853. pp. 93-102.
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STRICKLAND, Edward. American Composers : Dialogues on Contemporary Music. Indiana University Press, 1991. ISBN 025320643X.

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Journal and Magazine Articles:

BARRETT, Nick. "Crumb's Sound-World." The Listener, November 2, 1978.

BASS, Richard. "Sets, scales and symmetries: the pitch structural basis of George Crumb's Makrokosmos II." Music Theory Spectrum, 13(1991):1-20 n1. [annotations]

BASS, Richard. "Models of Octatonic and Whole-tone Interaction: George Crumb and his Predecessors." Journal of Music Theory 38 (1994). [1st annotations] [3rd annotation]

BENDER, William. "Star-Child in Review." Time, May 24(1979):36.

BORWICK, Doug. "The instrumental theater piece: an introduction to form and analysis." Woodwind World - Brass & Percussion. 15(1976):35-6 n4.

BRUNS, Steven M. "In stile Mahleriano: Quotation and Allusion in the Music of George Crumb." American Music Research Center Journal, 3(1993):9-39.

BURGE, David. "Celestial Mechanics (Makrokosmos IV): cosmic dances for amplified piano, 4 hands." Notes, 45(1989):859-60 n4.

BURGE, David. "About pianists." Clavier, 26(September 1987):50-1 n7. [annotation]

BURGE, David. "George Crumb's Five Pieces." Contemporary Keyboard, (July 1983):66. [annotation]

CARBON, John. "Astrological, Numerological, and Mythical Symbolism in George Crumb's Makrokosmos, Vol. I." 20th Century Music, (1995) June & September.

CARBON, John. "Astrological, Numerological, and Mythical Symbolism in George Crumb's Makrokosmos, Vol. II." 20th Century Music, (1996):7-10, April.

CARBON, John. "Astrological symbolic order in George Crumb's Makrokosmos." Sonus, 10(1990):65-80 n2.

CERF, S. "[Dream Sequence (Images II)] Bowdoin's Contemporary Music Festival." High Fidelity Musical America, 27(April 1977):28-29.

CHATMAN, Stephen. "George Crumb's Madrigals Book III: a linear analysis." In Theory Only, 1(December-January 1976-77):55-79.

DEVINEY, Chris. "Focus on performance: Interview with George Crumb." Percussive Notes, 28(1990):61-4 n4.

DOBAY, Thomas R. de. "The Evolution of Harmonic Style in the Lorca Works of Crumb." Journal of Music Theory, 28(1984):89-111 n1.

DUFALLO, Richard. "Interview" in Trackings, 1990.

FENNELLY, B. "George Crumb: 'Ancient Voices of Children,'" Notes, 24(1972-3), p. 560.

FRANK, Andrew. "George Crumb: Songs, Drones, and Refrains of Death." Notes, 33(1976-77), pp. 694-96.

GAMER, C. "Current Chronicle: Colorado Springs, Colorado," Musical Quarterly, 59(1973), p. 462.

GIFFIN, Glenn. "What composer Crumb did in the '60s is now 'normal'." Denver Post, 9 October 1992, section E, p. 5.

GREIMES, Ev. "Conversations with American composers: George Crumb." Music Clubs Magazine, 66(1986):37-9.

HAMILTON, David. "Three Composers of Today." Musical Newsletter, i/1(1971), p. 16.

HENAHAN, Donald. "Current Chronicle: Chicago - George Crumb Echoes of Time and the River." Musical Quarterly, 54(1968), p. 83.

HENAHAN, Donald. "Record review of Eleven Echoes of Autumn." Musical Quarterly, 55(1969), p. 280.

LEE, Douglas A. "Penderecki and Crumb at Wichita State." Musical Quarterly, 61(1975):584-8 n4.

LEWIS, Robert Hall. "George Crumb: Night Music I." Perspectives of New Music 3, no. 2 (1965):13.

LUSK, Larry. "George Crumb: 'Makrokosmos Vol. I.'" Notes, 31(1974-75), p. 157.

MOEVS, Robert. "George Crumb: Music for a Summer Evening (Makrokosmos III)." Musical Quarterly 62(1976):293.

NORRIS, Renee Lapp. "George Crumb's Five Pieces for Piano." Clavier, 37(8):22-26. October 1998.

PIENCIKOWSKI, Robert T. "Paris." Schweizerische Musikzeitung, 118(1978):37 n1.

RIIS, Thomas L. "A conversation with George Crumb." American Music Research Center Journal, 3(1993):40-49.

SHUFFETT, Robert V. "Interviews with George Crumb." Composer Magazine, 10-11(1980):29-42.

SMITH, P.J. & SAYLOR, B. "Crumb's Makrokosmos II - new vision or dead end?" High Fidelity Musical America, 25(February 1975):36-37.

STEINITZ, Richard. "The Music of George Crumb." Contact, 12 (1975):3.

STEINITZ, Richard. "George Crumb." Musical Times, 119(October 1978):844-5. [annotation]

THOMAS, Jennifer. "The Use of Color in Three Chamber Works of the 20th Century." Indiana Theory Review, 4:3(1981):22-40. [annotation]

TOMARO, Robert. "Contemporary Compositional Techniques for the Electric Guitar in United States Concert Music." Journal of New Music Research, 4(1994). {Songs, Drones, and Refrains of Death} [abstract]

TROTTER, H. "June in Buffalo: second annual contemporary festival features Xenakis, Crumb, Trotter." High Fidelity, 26(October 1976):26-27.

Theses and Dissertations:

BASS, Richard. "Pitch Structure in George Crumb's Makrokosmos Volumes I and II." Ph.D. dissertation. University of Texas at Austin, 1987. [annotation]

BROADWAY, Kenneth Lee. "An analysis and investigation of percussion performance practice in Madrigals, book II by George Crumb." D.M.A. thesis. University of Georgia, 1996.

CHEN, Chin-Chin. "An investigation of night music by Bela Bartok and George Crumb." M.Mus. thesis. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1995.

CHUN, Yung Hae. "The Extension of Piano Technique in Compositions by George Crumb for Solo Piano." D.M.A. dissertation. University of Wisconsin - Madison, 1982.

CORDES, Jean Kunselman. "A New American Development in Music: Some Characteristic Features Extending from the Legacy of Charles Ives." Doctoral dissertation. Louisiana State University, 1976.

CUNNINGHAM, Peter. "Structural determinants in George Crumb's Night of the Four Moons and Ancient Voices of Children." M.M. thesis. Ithaca College, Ithaca - New York, 1976.

DeBAISE, Joseph. "George Crumb's Music for a Summer Evening: A Comprehensive Analysis." Ph.D. dissertation. Eastman School of Music, 1982.

DE DOBAY, Thomas Raymond. "Small-Scale Structural Principles in the Chamber Music of George Crumb." Ph.D. dissertation. University of Southern California, 1979.

DE DOBAY, Thomas Raymond. "Harmonic Materials and Usages in the Lorca Cycle of George Crumb." Ph.D. dissertation. University of Southern California, 1982.

DUBAJ, Mariusz. "Makrokosmos." Masters thesis. Akademia Muzyczna, Gdansk - Poland, 1985.

FAULKNER, Susan Green. "An Analysis of George Crumb's Makrokosmos, Volume II and its Relationship to Makrokosmos, Volumes I and III." D.M.A. dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 1980.

FOUSE, Kathryn. "Surrealism in the piano music of representative twentieth-century American composers." D.M.A. thesis. University of North Texas, 1992. [annotation]

FRY, Johnathan. "New Musical Notation: a Bibliography." Ph.D. thesis. Eastman School of Music, 1977.

GOTER, Arlene. "The Treatment of the Piano in and Music for a Summer Evening (Makrokosmos III)." Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 1983.

HARREL, Doris. "New Techniques in Twentieth-Century Solo Piano Music: An Expansion of Pianistic Resources from Cowell to the Present." Doctoral dissertation. University of Texas - Austin, 1976.

JIORLE-NAGY, Linda A. "A study of phrase structures and unifying devices in George Crumb's Makrokosmos I and II." D.M.A. thesis. Boston University, 1993. [annotation]

KESSNER, Dolly. "Structural Coherence in Late Twentieth-Century Music: The Linear-Extrapolation Paradigm Applied to Four American Piano Compositions of Diverse Musical Styles (Martinu, Rzewski, Crumb, and Adams)." Unpublished dissertation. University of Southern California, 1992. [annotation]

KINGAN, Michael Gregory. "The influence of Bela Bartok on symmetry and instrumentation in George Crumb's Music for a summer evening." D.M.A. thesis. University of North Texas, 1993.

LACOSTE, Steven Michael. "Text treatment and musical structure in George Crumb's Lux aeterna and Igor Stravinsky's Introitus T.S. Eliot in memoriam." Ph.D. thesis. UCLA, 1996.

LEDBETTER, Robert B. "An examination of the percussion writing in the chamber works of George Crumb, 1960-1980." D.M.A. thesis. University of North Texas, 1993.

LINDEMAN, Timothy H. "A Comparison of George Crumb's Night Music I and Ancient Voices of Children." Ph.D. dissertation. Indiana University, 1978. [annotation]

MacBETH, Peter Cunningham. "Structural determinants in George Crumb's Night of the Four Moons and Ancient Voices of Children." M.M. thesis. Ithaca College, 1976.

MacLEAN, Suzanne. "A Study of Constructional Principles in George Crumb's Makrokosmos, Volume I." Masters thesis. American University, 1974.

MATTHEWS, Neil Wright. "George Crumb's Makrokosmos, Volumes I and II: Considerations for Performance, Including Observations by David Burge, Robert Miller, and Lambert Orkis." D.M.A. dissertation. University of Oklahoma, 1981.

McCARTHY, Mairéad Rita. "Symbols and Creative Transformation in George Crumb's Black Angels - an Interdisciplinary Exploration." Masters thesis. University of Western Australia, 1983.

McGEE, William James. "Textural and Timbre as Formal Determinants in Selected Music of George Crumb." Master's Thesis, University of Arizona, 1979.

McGEE, William James. "An Expanded Concept of Timbre and its Structural Significance with a timbral Analysis of George Crumb's Night of the Four Moons." Ph.D. dissertation. University of Arizona, 1982.

McKAY, John Robert. "Notational Practices in Selected Piano Works of the Twentieth Century." Doctoral dissertation. Ball State University, 1976.

MITCHELL, Darleen Louise. "Octatonicism in the music of George Crumb: an analysis of A Haunted landscape." Ph.D. thesis. University of Chicago, 1997.

MOORE, Linda Grace. "Contemporary Cello Techniques from the Twentieth-Century Repertory." Doctoral dissertation. Ball State University, 1976.

PIENAAR, E.A. "Number symbolism in Music: George Crumb's Makrokosmos I and the Music of the Spheres." M.Mus. dissertation. University of Cape Town, 1997.

OTT, David L. "The Role of Texture and Timbre in the Music of George Crumb." Doctoral dissertation. University of Kentucky, 1983.

REEDER, Douglas Bell. "Symbolism and textual painting in four vocal works by George Crumb." D.M.A. thesis. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, 1997.

ROMEO, James Joseph. "Vocal Parts in the Music of George Crumb." Masters thesis. Michigan State University, 1978.

ROUSE, Christopher. "The Music of George Crumb: Stylistic Metamorphosis as Reflected in the Lorca Cycle." D.M.A. Composition. Cornell University, 1977.

SAMS, Carol Lee. "Solo Vocal Writing in Selected Works of Berio, Crumb and Rochberg." D.M.A. dissertation. University of Washington, 1975.

SCHULTZ, Donna. "Set Theory and its Application to Compositions by Five 20th Century Composers." Ph.D. dissertation. Michigan State University, 1979. [annotation]

SHUFFETT, Robert. "The Music, 1971-75, of George Crumb: A Style Analysis." D.M.A. dissertation. Peabody Institute, 1979. [annotation]

SIMONI, Mary. "The Computer Analysis of Atonal Music: An Application Program Using Set Theory." Doctoral dissertation. Michigan State University, 1984.

SUTTON, Daniel. "The musical language of George Crumb's Makrokosmos volume II, and its relationship to the style of Claude Debussy." D.M.A. thesis. Manhattan School of Music, 1993.

SYNNESTVEDT, Peter N. "A Study of Three Contemporary American Works for Orchestra (Bassett, Crumb, and Schuller)." D.M.A. dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 1987.

SZUTOR, Kristina F. "Musical coherence and poetic meaning in George Crumb's Apparition." D.M.A. thesis. University of British Columbia, 1994.

TAKENOUCHI, Aleksei. "Numbers and Proportions in George Crumb's Solo Piano Compositions." D.M.A. dissertation. Northwestern University, 1987. [annotation]

TIMM, Kenneth N. "A Stylistic Analysis of George Crumb's Vox Balaenae." Doctoral dissertation. Northwestern University, 1977. [annotation]

WHITE, John W. "Derivative elements from non-Western musical cultures utilized in the music of George Crumb." M.M. thesis. Ithaca College, 1983.

YOSHIDA, Kikuko. "A Study of George Crumb: Music Based on Poetic Images." Masters thesis. Tokyo Geijutsu Daigaku (Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music), 1985.


CRUMB, George.  A Conversation with George Crumb.

CRUMB, George. Interview with Ingram Marshall. Oral History, American Music project. Yale University, 1 December 1998.

CRUMB, George. Interview with Ev Grimes. Oral History, American Music project. Yale University, 16 May 1984.

CRUMB, George. Interview with Vincent Plush. Oral History, American Music project. Yale University, 10 October 1983.

CRUMB, George. Music: Does it have a future? The Kenyon Review, Summer 1980.